The first major building to use to cover the main space was applied ribbed arch was the Romanesque Cathedral in Darema (1093-1140 years).
During the penetration of the Gothic style in England in some English cities already towered Romanesque cathedrals, the dimensions of which exceed the needs of the few then of the urban population. Therefore, with the exception of a number of new (Salisbury, Lincoln) and radically reconstructed (York) constructions of Gothic clothing in favor of new influences were superimposed on a pre-existing Romanesque core (Winchester, Chichester, Gloucester).
The development of wool production and the increased export of wool contributed to the emergence of a number of new cities. They had many churches which manifest such characteristics of English Gothic, as the flat end towers and a rectangular apse.
Unlike France, where in a small rural parish churches and often repeats the composition of the largest cathedrals in England these churches are its own type, and the emphasis is placed not on the Central tower (above the crossing), and in the axial tower above the Western facade. Continue reading
Recently in the world suddenly “showered” bridges. Capital buildings literally fall down like a house of cards. Though all these emergency happened far away, Willy-nilly, think about it, how is it? Isn’t it time to start getting scared, as soon as the car window or bus appear protective railing of one of the Kharkov bridges?
About this question we turned to the experts of the organization, which is most of the “air” pedestrian and vehicular paths of our city, – KP “Dorremstroy”.
“A sore point” – joints
– In General, the state of Kharkiv bridges satisfactory . – says the chief engineer of KP “Dorremstroy” Dmitry Vlasenko . – Bridge – it is a durable structure that can stand and 70-80, and 100 years. In Kharkov there wasn’t a single bridge, which would need to be dismantled due to poor condition of bearing designs. All these are normal, it is necessary to change only expansion joints and asphalt. And if on the road it can just “grow” on top, then the bridges need to completely remove the old layer to prevent design overhead. As it turned out, according to experts, many bridges built before the war or after the war, is in better condition than new buildings. The cases that the old bridges have been built with slightly different design: they are solid, without joints. According to Dmitry Vlasenko . the main “sore spot” of all modern local bridge expansion joints. Periodically these metal “ties” between the parts of the bridge need to be changed, because over time they begin to leak. Continue reading
According to researchers, the history of Baalbek can be traced back to the construction of the temple of Baal (Baal) is an ancient Phoenician deity. His name is still in the name of Baalbek. After the destruction of the temple by the earthquake he was restored by the Egyptians as a temple of the Sun, and with the advent of the Greeks got Baalbek ancient name Heliopolis – city of the Sun.
In the era of the Roman Empire, the Sun temple was rebuilt in the temple of Jupiter, near to which were built the temples of Bacchus and Venus. During the Byzantine Empire, the pagan temples were transformed into Christian, then came the era of Arab minarets, then came the crusaders, the Turks and the Mongols. Ancient temples were plundered, rebuilt, dismantled for use as building material and many times suffered from strong earthquakes.
Baalbek today is a small Lebanese village, and the eponymous temple complex lies in ruins nearby. But even what has survived to our times, is impressive and staggering. Continue reading