The great architects
The great 20th century architect Le Corbusier believed that architecture is “the art of constructing”.
Many peoples and cultures contributed to the history of architecture. The pioneers were the Greeks, who created three orders, i.e. a special order in the arrangement of the parts of the building: strict — Doric, elegant, Ionian, lush Corinthian. The flowering of Greek architecture dates back to the 5th century, when Athens on the hill of the Acropolis were built by its famous temples.
The heirs of Greek culture the Romans first learned to build stone arches, simple vaults and domes for floors of buildings, began to be used for bonding stones lime mortar. It was a huge step forward in building technology. The most remarkable monuments of Roman architecture belong to the first centuries of our era. Special splendor distinguished buildings designed for entertainment: circuses, amphitheatres, baths. The largest Roman amphitheater, the Colosseum could accommodate 50 thousand spectators.
With the fall of Rome the architecture was divided along with the division of the Empire. The most famous construction of the Eastern Roman Empire the Byzantine Empire is the colossal temple of sacred Sofia in Constantinople, with a huge light dome. The dome architecture of Byzantium followed the architecture of Ancient Russia, received its baptism from Byzantium and became her heir.
The European middle ages created two architectural systems: romance (from “Romanus” — “Roman”) and “Gothic” (nazvanivaet from high and sharp tents of the barbarians-ready). The Romanesque temple like fortress; he is strong, majestic. The Gothic Cathedral, on the contrary, light, transparent, easy. It is a semicircular Roman arches became pointed, ribbed.
During the Renaissance attention to earthly man has led to the emergence of a very special architecture. Highest its heyday the architecture of the Renaissance had reached in the late 16th century in the works of Italian architect Andrea Palladio, who created his buildings in Venice and in the Venice district.
Instead of quiet architectural forms of the Renaissance came a stormy and magnificent Baroque (“Baroque” means “pretentious, complicated”). Baroque reigned in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. Its symbol was the Cathedral of St. Peter (a work by the great Michelangelo) in Rome and the square in front of this Cathedral (architect Lorenzo Bernini).
Simultaneously with the Baroque architecture emerged architecture of classicism. If Baroque is a sense, classicism, order, calm and serious thought. One of the famous rivals of the Baroque St. Peter’s is St. Paul’s Cathedral in London (architect Christopher Wren).
Creation of the Russian architects (especially the 18 century and early 19), such as Bazhenov, Kazakov, Rastrelli, Rossi, immortalized the names of their creators.
19th and 20th century architecture of steel for centuries, experiments and brilliant findings. Metal, glass, concrete, lightweight, floating design, endless imagination, a love of simple geometry are the hallmarks of a new architecture. Characters of this steel architecture of the Eiffel tower in Paris (1889) and the first Chicago skyscrapers that rose above the pyramids, Gothic cathedrals, the Eiffel tower. The architecture of the skyscraper is complete separation from the earth, turning it into part of a huge machine of a city.
Plant, animal skeleton, proportions of the human figure no less attracted architects. Catalan architect Antonio Gaudi built the buildings, turning them into fantastic creatures.
Simple and at the same time, the symbolic form of architecture attracted great architect of the 20th century. Le Corbusier. His famous chapel at Ronchamp resembles an ark or two to hug the human body and is also likened to sculpture. Another outstanding example of “transformation” of the buildings in the sculpture, the building of American Frank Lloyd Wright, who built in new York to the Guggenheim Museum’s spiral, resembling the curl of the shell, a ramp.
The experiments did not end there and is still going on.