Amiens Cathedral. France
The term “Gothic” is more conventional than “Romanesque art”. It originated in Italy during the Renaissance, when we naively thought that the shape of Lancet arches of medieval architecture evolved from ancient forms of tents ready, supposedly just connecting the crown of trees growing nearby. In this term invested at the same time contempt for all the arts of the middle ages, for the Italians of the Renaissance that invaded the Roman Empire during the “great migration of peoples” the Goths, who founded on its ruins the Kingdom, was always the epitome of barbarism. Subsequently, when related to architecture of the middle ages has changed drastically, this term was retained to refer to late medieval art.
In most European countries the heyday of the Gothic back to XIII—XIV century. Typical for this time is the rapid growth and prosperity of cities. Creative activity now shifts from the monasteries into the hands of the secular masters, combining shop-floor organization.
Architecture . The architecture has developed a distinctive, extremely logical system designs and décor. This system has developed most fully revealed in the construction of large urban cathedrals in France, where he first formed the Gothic style, voshodjaschie to the first half of the XII century. These cathedrals were the pride of towns and, apart from their direct religious purposes, was often used in a secular view for public meetings of citizens.
Features of Gothic architecture.
Built huge stone temples, the stability of which depended on the correct distribution of the forces of gravity and inherent in each set of abutments. The essence of Gothic design was that it created like a frame, or skeleton, of the building.
The main part of the building frame to relieve pressure on the thrust from the arch of the building, were brought from the interior to the outside (the buttresses and flying buttresses)
The shape of Lancet arches, decreasing in comparison with the thrust of a semicircular arch, seems as a characteristic feature of Gothic architecture, and design is described. The Lancet arch is constantly used in arcades, Windows, doors, as well as in purely decorative purposes.