Megalithic structures
Megaliths (from the Greek. μέγας - Large, λίθος - Stone) - prehistoric structures of large stone blocks, joined without cement or mortar. In the limiting case that one module (…

Continue reading →

Toruń-gingerbread capital of Poland
Torun since 1997 included in the World heritage list of UNESCO. The city has many monuments of the middle ages and the 20th century. The city is known for its…

Continue reading →

A walk through the ages: the Gothic quarter of Barcelona
The Gothic quarter is the historical center of Barcelona, because here began the building of the city. The area is located between Plaza de Catalunya on the one hand, a…

Continue reading →

The geological structure of the territory of Russia

The basis of Russia are major tectonic structures (platforms, panels, fold belt), which are expressed in various forms of the modern relief – mountains, lowlands, uplands, etc.

In Russia there are two major ancient Precambrian platform (the Foundation was formed largely in the Archean and the Proterozoic) — this is Russian and Siberian, and three young (West Siberian, Pechora, and Scythian). The idea of the geological structure and conditions of occurrence of rocks are reflected on the tectonic map of Russia .

On the East European platform in Russia is the Baltic shield . the Siberian Aldan and Anabar.

On the East European platform is a Russian stove . in Siberia – the Lena-Yenisei.

Young platform in Russia do not have the outputs of the base on the surface. They almost universally have accumulated cover of sedimentary rocks, i.e. they are presented in whole slabs. For example, in the West-Siberian platform, West Siberian plate, etc.

To the plates of the platforms are timed such major landforms like plains of varying heights. On the Russian plate is the Russian plain (Eastern European), on the Lena-Yenisei – Medium-Cyberchallenge, West-Siberian and West-Siberian lowland, in the Pechora Pechora lowland, on the Scythian plains of Ciscaucasia. The presence in Russia of several major platforms have ensured that the plains occupy three-quarters of Russia’s territory.

The East-European platform

Within the Russian plate the Foundation of the ancient East European craton is overlapped by sedimentary cover rocks are predominantly Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. Case on different parts has a different power. Above the depressions of the basement it reaches 3 km or more. Although the bumps are smoothed out of the basement sedimentary rocks, some of them are reflected on the relief. The height of the most part of the Russian plain is less than 200 m, but within it there is a hill (Sredne-Russian, Smolensk-Moscow, Volga, North Uvaly, Timan ridge).

Both basement rocks and sedimentary cover contain large mineral deposits. Among the ore minerals the most important are iron of sedimentary-metamorphic origin, are confined to the crystalline basement. With magmatic rocks of the Baltic shield associated deposits of copper-Nickel, aluminum ores and Apatite. A variety of sedimentary rocks contain oil, gas, coal and lignite, potash and rock salt, phosphorites, bauxites.

Siberian platform

Within the Lena-Yenisey plate, Siberian platform of ancient crystalline basement is buried under a thick layer of mainly Paleozoic sediments. The peculiarity of the geological structure of the Siberian platform is the presence of traps is poured out on the surface or frozen in sedimentary strata igneous rocks.

Middle Siberian plateau is of the hight 500-800 m above sea level, the highest point in Putorana plateau (1701 m).

The basement and sedimentary layer of the Siberian platform contain huge amounts of minerals. In the rocks of the basement and the stairs are large iron deposits. It intruded into the sedimentary cover is confined magmatic rocks of diamonds and copper-Nickel ores of chromium and cobalt. In Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata of sedimentary rocks formed huge accumulations of coal and lignite, potash and salts recipe, oil and gas.

West Siberian platform

The Foundation of the young West Siberian platform is a ruined mining facilities, in the era of Hercynian and the Baikal skladchatosti. The basement is overlain with a powerful cover of Mesozoic and kainozoiskikh predominantly marine and continental sand and clay deposits. To Mesozoic rocks are confined to the huge reserves of oil and gas, brown coal, iron ore of sedimentary origin.

The height of the predominant part of the West Siberian plain not exceed 200 m.

Platform wrapped in folded-mountain regions . which differ from the platforms nature of the rock bedding and high mobility of the earth’s crust.

For example:

The Russian plain is separated from the ancient Western Siberian Ural mountains . stretching from North to South by 2.5 thousand km.

From the South-East of the West Siberian plain bordered by the Altai mountains .

The Siberian platform from the South is framed by the mountain belt of South Siberia. In the modern relief is the Baikal mountainous country . Sayan . Yenisei ridge .

In the Aldan shield of the Siberian platform are the Backbone and the Aldan plateau.

East of the Lena river up to Chukotka and Primorye are significant mountain ranges (ranges: Chersky, Verkhoyansk, Kolyma highlands).

In the extreme North-East and East of the country runs the Pacific folding belt, including Kamchatka, Sakhalin island and Kuril ridge Islands. Further South this area of young mountains is continued in the Japanese Islands. The Kuril Islands are the highest peaks (about 7 thousand meters) mountains that rise from the seabed. Most of it is under water.

Powerful mountain-building processes and movements of tectonic plates (Eurasian and Pacific) in the area continue. Witness the intense earthquake and moretaste. For places volcanic activity is characterized by hot springs, including periodically spouting geysers, as well as gaseous emissions from craters and cracks which testify to active processes in the deep subsurface. Active volcanoes and geysers are the most common on the Kamchatka Peninsula.

Mountain-folded area Russia differ from each other in time of formation.

On this basis there are five types of orogenic belts.

1. The Baikal and the early Caledonian orogeny (700 – 520 million years ago) formed the territory of the Baikal region and Transbaikalia, Eastern Sayan, Tuva, Yenisei and Timan ridges.

2. Region of the Caledonian folding (460-400 mA) formed the West Sayan, Gorny Altai.

3. The area of the Hercynian folding (300 to 230 million years) – the Urals and Rudny Altai.

4. The Mesozoic folding area (160 – 70 million years) – North-East of Russia, and Sikhote-Alin.

5. Region of Cenozoic folding (30 million years before present) – the Caucasus, the Koryak upland, Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Kuril Islands.

Orogen dokimasoyme age arose on the borders of ancient tectonic plates when they collide. The number, size and shape of tectonic plates have changed many times throughout geological history. The convergence of ancient lithospheric plates caused the collision of continents with each other and with island arcs. This led to the crumpling into folds of sedimentary strata accumulated in marine basins of continental margins and formation of folded mountain structures. Thus in the early Paleozoic emerged region of the Caledonian folding of Altai and Sayan, in the late Paleozoic – Hercynian folds of the Mountain Altai, the Urals, the basement of the West Siberian and Scythian young platform, the Mesozoic folded region of the North-East and the Far East of Russia.

Folded mountains formed over time destroyed by external forces: weathering, activity, sea, rivers, glaciers, wind. In place of mountains were formed relatively aligned at the surface of folded Foundation. Further large areas of these territories have experienced only a slow raising and lowering. In times of subsidences of territory was covered by the waters of the seas and there was an accumulation of horizontally bedded strata of sedimentary rocks. It formed the young West Siberian and Scythian, Pechora platform having a folded Foundation, consisting of eroded mountains, and the cover of sedimentary rocks. Large areas dockingsource folded areas in the second half of the Cenozoic experienced lifting. It formed the faults broke the crust into blocks (blocks). Individual rose to different heights, forming the revived block mountains and highlands of southern and North-Eastern Siberia, southern Far East, the Urals, the Taimyr Peninsula.

Mountain-folded area are separated from adjacent platforms or faults . either the regional (Piedmont) deflection . The largest deflections are pre-Urals, Preferansi and Ciscaucasian.

Mysterious Kyiv: where better not to go
Have you ever, walking the streets of Kiev, to feel sudden loss of strength or, on the contrary, an extraordinary burst of energy? Or maybe you were witness to poltergeist…

...

Gothic in England: the Church
The first major building to use to cover the main space was applied ribbed arch was the Romanesque Cathedral in Darema (1093-1140 years). During the penetration of the Gothic style…

...