The water delivery. Types of water intake facilities
Water delivery of a set of measures to provide water to the population, industrial enterprises, transport and other consumers.
The choice of type of water intake facilities and their position depends on
the depth of the aquifer, its capacity and voodoobilly,
the mode of occurrence, geological and hydrological conditions.
In the design of new and expansion of existing water intakes should respect the terms of their interaction with existing and planned water intakes in adjacent areas, as well as their impact on the environment (surface runoff, vegetation, etc.).
The requirements for water intakes of water supply systems:
1) Intake structures must ensure the water supply is adequate and of required quality. Continuity of water flow in the selected security should be guaranteed under the most unfavorable possible combination of hydrological, technological and other conditions.
2) Intake structures shall: provide fence the water source and supply it to the consumer; to protect the water system from getting into her litter, algae, plankton, biological fouling organisms, sediment, ice, etc.; to protect juvenile fish from proniknoveniya intake.
3) Intake structures for drinking purposes must meet the sanitary requirements. In the locations of these structures are organizing zones of sanitary protection.
4) the Diversion structure should be strong, durable, resistant, simple in construction, convenient in operation and economical.
When selecting the source of centralized drinking water supply, consider first of all groundwater in the rocks of the upper layer of the earth’s crust. First, consider the possibility of using inter-layer pressure water, then inter-layer unconfined, then the fissure-karst and groundwater.