As a result the slow, but unceasing development of medieval social relations and art there was a new style, authentically reflecting the change occurred. The Gothic style, which lasted more than 300 years, was born in France in Ile de France in the North and lasted from 1200 1525 years. The name of the style caught the derisive nickname in the Renaissance, who wanted to emphasize his wildness and barbarism. Simultaneously with France, the Gothic style appeared in Belgium and in Switzerland, in Germany this style was developed only in the thirteenth century and reached its full flowering in the XIV—XV centuries.
The flourishing of cities in the feudal middle ages is closely linked with the development of trade and crafts. The ruling class in the cities were the landowners, the noble circle of suzerain and rich merchants. The largest segment of the population form the Guild craftsmen and petty traders.
The change of style is reflected in architectural forms. Bulky, grim, fortress like Romanesque churches give way to the vibrant, colorful, infinitely diverse structures of the Gothic. The walls become lighter; typical form elements are tall towers, slim columns, the complex shape of the arches, delicate ornaments, window rose and Lancet arches. The Lancet arch of soaring like a spear, in its form felt Eastern influence. Gothic architecture by, outward-looking, and completely new skeleton system of construction, new design of the arches: arches solid the replaced system rib slab and made out of powerful buttresses, with flying buttresses (arches rocker). Fabulous Gothic design overcomes the bulkiness of the stone, which fettered and antique architectural forms, bringing heavy rock to the borders of non-materiality. Works of medieval art is distinguished by expressiveness, and expressiveness. The picture in most cases very vitally depict dramatic biblical scenes on them, we see people of this era in modern clothes. Huge colorful stained glass Windows in the light penetrating through them the sun’s rays seem almost intangible.
“Gothic rose” — this Symphony of light, poem in glass and stone — as possible reflect the essence of the Gothic style. Gothic altars — the amazing masterpieces, happily combining the beauty of paintings and painted sculptures. Color gets in the middle ages a special role. Clothing, houses, statues delight the eye with bright colors and gilding.
By the end of the middle ages with the emergence of firearms, the fortress loses its meaning, in their bloom the walls of feudal castles, protected by fortified towers. The medieval town was built in a small area, closely built up and surrounded by walls that once provided protection from attacks from the outside. The streets were narrow and crooked, and the houses are narrow and high. The lower floor housed shops, workshops, top — dwelling. In the long hard struggle of the city was wrested from the suzerains of the various privileges, self-government. Architects and builders — not the Ministers of the Church, and the free artisans, craftsmen construction business.
Versions of the Gothic style can be divided into two main groups: North and South. Northern Gothic art submitted by the countries France, the Netherlands, Northwest Germany and England, is of particular importance to the Dutch art. Southern Gothic is distributed primarily in southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria. In many countries of Northern Europe (Germany, Flanders, Scandinavia) some characteristics of the Gothic style has been preserved until the appearance of Baroque, and in the more remote areas — and even later.