The most beautiful Gothic cathedrals in France
Gothic architecture replaced the Romanesque and developed on the basis of Burgundy. There is evidence that in the early XII century the master of the Abbey of Saint-Denis near Paris under the leadership of the Abbot of Suger began developing a new design is typically Gothic pointed arches. It was the Church of the monastery of Saint-Denis, a project that has created the Abbot Suger, considered to be the first Gothic architectural structure. In its construction were removed many of the supports and interior walls – so the Church was transformed and became more graceful look compared to Romanesque churches, sometimes called “fortresses of God”.
With varying degrees of success, it has spread throughout Europe. In the XIII century, under the influence of the Gothic were Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Spain and England. Later she came to Italy, where it is not so widely spread, but were still able to adapt, becoming “Italian Gothic” after a major transformation. At the end of the fourteenth century Europe had seized the so-called international Gothic style, crowned by a late or “flamboyant” Gothic style. In Eastern Europe it entered later and stayed there a little longer — until the XVI century.
The quintessence of Gothic art was the Cathedral – it was a synthesis of architecture, sculpture and painting. Everyone here wants to reach, each element emphasizes the vertical arches with a pointed top, a narrow and high towers and columns, a facade with carved details and arched Windows with mnogoletnyaya. But if to take into account the fact that the Cathedral was the center of life almost any European city, towering and dominating him, will not be surprised by the ease with which the minds of Christian princes adopted a new style. Moreover, the Gothic style was seen as a symbol of monarchical power and divine Providence.
The main difference between a Gothic Cathedral from the Romanesque predecessors – resistant frame system in which a constructive role of cross-rib vaulted ceiling, the arch of Lancet shape, which determine largely the internal and external appearance of the building. The building structure consists of rectangular cells (travel) limited 4 the 4 pillars and arches, which along with the arches-ribs form the skeleton of the cross vault. The lateral thrust of the main nave is passed by using flying buttresses on the exterior pillars, buttresses. Freed from the load of the wall between pillars erupt arched Windows.
In the Gothic cathedrals given a sample of the complex interaction and interpenetration of internal space and external environment. This is facilitated by a huge window openings, thread-through tower tents, forest crowned with pinnacles of the buttresses. Was of great importance and carved stone ornaments: finials-finial, the stone spikes that emerge like flowers and leaves, on the branches of the stone forest of buttresses, flying buttresses and spires of the towers. Do not be confused by the rich decoration is in Gothic there is no concept of “too decorative”.
After the Cathedral was pulled up and the city itself. The Central squares were built hall with rich decorations, often with a tower (town hall in Saint-Quentin, 1351-1509).