Gothic in England: the Church
The first major building to use to cover the main space was applied ribbed arch was the Romanesque Cathedral in Darema (1093-1140 years).
During the penetration of the Gothic style in England in some English cities already towered Romanesque cathedrals, the dimensions of which exceed the needs of the few then of the urban population. Therefore, with the exception of a number of new (Salisbury, Lincoln) and radically reconstructed (York) constructions of Gothic clothing in favor of new influences were superimposed on a pre-existing Romanesque core (Winchester, Chichester, Gloucester).
The development of wool production and the increased export of wool contributed to the emergence of a number of new cities. They had many churches which manifest such characteristics of English Gothic, as the flat end towers and a rectangular apse.
Unlike France, where in a small rural parish churches and often repeats the composition of the largest cathedrals in England these churches are its own type, and the emphasis is placed not on the Central tower (above the crossing), and in the axial tower above the Western facade.
Gothic cathedrals of England stand often in open areas and these are different from the French, though more slender and dynamic, but usually are located among dense construction.
A total horizontally-extended compositions usually dominated by a powerful tower additional decoration, relatively higher than in France. Symmetrical West facade sometimes on Norman custom, flanked by two towers, or decorated with ornamental turrets. The logic of the composition here is more obnazhennoy. The plan retains the form of highly elongated Latin cross and the interior is developing in depth.
If in the French cathedrals of the width to length ratio is on average 1:4, then in England, it comes to 1:6. The rectangular apse remains; semi-circular with the crown of chapels is rare.
In the interior, especially in the early Gothic (in England XIII century), dominated by horizontal divisions; the main space of the choir, the nave, the transept — are treated as independent parts of a whole.
The same is true for the composition of the external volumes. The tiers do not grow one from the other, and superimposed one on another. The relatively low average oil defines an external appearance of the building and the height of the flying buttresses, which in English Gothic play a much smaller role and are often hidden under the roof of the side naves (Church in Wales); they are never used in the Eastern part.
Side Windows are usually small; but the Windows of the choir often occupy the entire field East of the wall between buttresses. The window-rose, rarely used.
Portals, as a rule, inferior in size French. Their sculptural decoration is usually modest and does not argue with a wealth of development throughout the Western walls of the facades, sometimes covered with decorative niches, and sculpture.
The arch in the thirteenth century was applied lanceolate, with strong lift arm, and at the end of the Gothic era — chetyrehtsentrovye.
From simple (sestrichestva) arch English architects already in XIII century passed to more complex forms of arches with tiercerons and lierne, and later decorative mesh, stellate and fan-shaped vaults, sometimes limitirovanie in the tree.
Common in Western literature periods of English Gothic divides its history into three phases . early Gothic, or “lanceolate” (XIII century); the Mature, or “decorated” (XIV century), and late, or “perpendicular” (XV century).
Ribbed arch Darginskogo Cathedral (1130) was an early forerunner of the birth of a new style, but the first important monument of Gothic architecture in England — the new choir of the Cathedral at Canterbury — emerged only in the last quarter of the XII century (1175-1184.). However, a number of characteristics (restitutie cross vaults above the choir, a semicircular apse with an annular bypass and double columns), as the interpretation of details not received further development in the architecture of England, connects this building with more architecture in France.
Distinctive features of English Gothic of the early period, combining the stability of tradition with the search for new, pronounced in Welsh and Lincalinca cathedrals in the classic English Gothic monument of the XIII century — the Cathedral in Salisbury .
By the beginning of the XIII century. eventually develop features typical of English Gothic. In gramotron she best represented the Cathedral in Salisbury .
Great importance had a Church Westminster Abbey the place of coronation of English monarchs.
Mainly refers to the XIII century and is highly characteristic of Mature Gothic Cathedral in York .
Many monuments of the English middle ages only conditionally can be attributed in General to the Romanesque or Gothic architecture, so they Roman traits became intertwined with the Gothic. These are the cathedrals of Peterborough, Ely, Gloucester, Lichfield, Oxford, Exeter, etc. In the process of reconstructions of these buildings of Gothic masters had made a lot of new, contributing to the further development of Gothic art in England.
A striking example of this is the Cathedral in Exeter . which after some rearrangements (1224-1370 years) from the Romanesque foundations remained very small. The most interesting in the Cathedral vaults (1328—gg.), which, by developing a system of arches Lincoln Cathedral (1225-1253.), preparing the transition from the cross arch to the Gothic — fan. The main difference between the arches of Exeter Cathedral — in fan-shaped arrangement of the ribs, spread here and on form removal. A new trend in the development of the style reflects and reducing the height of a tier of triforia, turned into a kind of arcature by increasing the height of the top row of Windows. It helped us to illuminate the interior and give it greater spaciousness and ease.
The restructuring of the Eastern part of the old Romanesque Cathedral in Gloucester opens a new stage in the development of medieval architecture in England, and national in its essence is the form resulting from this restructuring in the choir of Gloucester Cathedral (completed in 1350), called “perpendicular” Gothic style, soon became dominant. In constructions and especially in the decoration for many years, the prevailing horizontal and extended vertical lines, right angles undoubtedly inspired by the traditions of folk architecture (Fachwerk). These simple forms have replaced the old complex, curvilinear decoration.
Dark of the Norman choir of the Cathedral was transformed after reconstruction in bright with large window openings. Old Roman pillars and the walls were hewn and the smooth surface overlay the trunks of tall thin columns made of marble perbacco. And, although a layer structure of the choir is preserved the Romanesque principle (triforium almost equal 7I height of the choir), but high after rebuilding the top row of Windows and triforia took in the whole width of the span between supports.
In contrast to the early period of Gothic, when in the articulation of interior dominated by horizontal and each tier is performed independently (Church in Wales), here clearly expressed the desire for their unification. The stone mullions of the upper Windows and triforium are held throughout the height of the nave, forming the characteristic for the late Gothic of the sill panel. The desire to destroy the wall and highlight support — the basis of the Gothic structure is expressed most clearly in the interpretation of the East window of the apse (about 22 x 11.5 m), the largest of the Windows of medieval churches of England (1350).
Features of the style of the last period of English Gothic clearly in the cloister (completed in 1377) Gloucester Cathedral where it was first used rolling code, which characterized not only the pattern of the ribs, and form removal are merged in a funnel shape.
To the structures of the late Gothic period is the nave (1379-1405,) Cathedral in Canterbury . where the vaults, the ribs of which form the semblance of stars, are based on solid pillars in the form of bundles of elongated columns.
New traits expressed in the nave of the Cathedral in Winchester (1394-1450.), where essentially is no tier triforium and lower arcade was thereby significantly higher.
A special place in the English Gothic style is a small one-hall buildings – halls of the Chapter . They most consistently brought to an end frame of the Gothic principle, here sivali themselves and gradually developing into decorative.
In the small lovely hall of the Chapter in Wales is maintained as the lower part of the wall, and clear articulation on the bearing and filling elements. The Central pillar supports the strongly contoured arch. Here constructive and decorative yet not contradict each other.
The same can be said about the hall of the Chapter in Salisbury . But the creative imagination of masters of late Gothic architecture more and more directed to the search forms that affect the eyes.
These searches have found particularly vivid expression in the later Gothic constructions of the beginning of the XVI century. the crown jewel of which was three large one-hall of the chapel of Windsor, Cambridge and Westminster — a Gothic monuments of the early Renaissance in England the early Tudors.