Stonehenge — the most famous of the megaliths — for centuries stirred the imagination of people. But thousands more not less mysterious prehistoric stone “sphinxes”, is puzzling to the researchers, scattered around the world. Many of these mysterious structures and on the territory of Russia. Alexander Gay, a prominent Russian expert on Eneolithic and bronze age in South-Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, I am sure: there is not enough for one generation.
What are the megaliths and how they differ from each other?
Constructions from huge stones, slabs and blocks were erected by different peoples and in different epochs. The pyramids of Egypt or the temple in Belbek — also megaliths. Just call them so is not accepted. Megalithic research and in wide use called, usually stone monuments of prehistoric peoples who have not reached the level of barbarity or civilization.
In France, on the Atlantic coast — the whole field from thousands of these megaliths, built in parallel rows for miles. In addition, the megaliths are of different types: Nordic seids, the Nuraghe of Sardinia, the Atlantic corridor of the tomb of Europe, which is often now called in Breton Karami; menhirs — standing stones-stelae; stone circles — stone circles; dolmens — tombs with pillars or walls of verticalnaya, usually covered with a flat roof. Continue reading
Some species are solitary insects that build shelters for themselves and their offspring, live in the soil. This is due not only the development of certain building instincts, and the appearance of specific morphological structures. In this respect, the remarkable mole cricket. Their front legs turned into a typical digging organs with which insects perform a large amount of excavation. Suffice it to say that the ordinary mole cricket prokativaet underground a network of branched passages at a depth of 10-20 cm in the summer and in the winter deepens to 1 M. With this activity of mole crickets is associated with its Latin name, which translated into Russian language means “cricket-mole”.
Many species of wasps construct few combs. They are often located in tiers one under the other. In this case, the first is based top cells. As more families and expanding the nest to the first cell using the legs is attached the second hundred, etc. the Nesting structure of this type is characteristic of the genera spring, parvispora, polybia, etc. Some intermediate position between single-stage and multistage arrangement of cells is the nesting design of the concentric type, such as, for example, OS nectarine, inhabiting the tropical parts of South America. Honeycombs in the nests of these wasps have an Orb C shaped. The cells are strengthened on the common base constituting the spiral sakrusenergo nests. Continue reading
The term “Gothic” is more conventional than “Romanesque art”. It originated in Italy during the Renaissance, when we naively thought that the shape of Lancet arches of medieval architecture evolved from ancient forms of tents ready, supposedly just connecting the crown of trees growing nearby. In this term invested at the same time contempt for all the arts of the middle ages, for the Italians of the Renaissance that invaded the Roman Empire during the “great migration of peoples” the Goths, who founded on its ruins the Kingdom, was always the epitome of barbarism. Subsequently, when related to architecture of the middle ages has changed drastically, this term was retained to refer to late medieval art.
In most European countries the heyday of the Gothic back to XIII—XIV century. Typical for this time is the rapid growth and prosperity of cities. Creative activity now shifts from the monasteries into the hands of the secular masters, combining shop-floor organization.
Architecture . The architecture has developed a distinctive, extremely logical system designs and décor. This system has developed most fully revealed in the construction of large urban cathedrals in France, where he first formed the Gothic style, voshodjaschie to the first half of the XII century. These cathedrals were the pride of towns and, apart from their direct religious purposes, was often used in a secular view for public meetings of citizens. Continue reading