The great 20th century architect Le Corbusier believed that architecture is “the art of constructing”.
Many peoples and cultures contributed to the history of architecture. The pioneers were the Greeks, who created three orders, i.e. a special order in the arrangement of the parts of the building: strict — Doric, elegant, Ionian, lush Corinthian. The flowering of Greek architecture dates back to the 5th century, when Athens on the hill of the Acropolis were built by its famous temples.
The heirs of Greek culture the Romans first learned to build stone arches, simple vaults and domes for floors of buildings, began to be used for bonding stones lime mortar. It was a huge step forward in building technology. The most remarkable monuments of Roman architecture belong to the first centuries of our era. Special splendor distinguished buildings designed for entertainment: circuses, amphitheatres, baths. The largest Roman amphitheater, the Colosseum could accommodate 50 thousand spectators. Continue reading
Something about the furniture
The name “Gothic” comes from the Greek and Latin languages: “gothos” and “gotthus”. Goths in ancient Rome were called barbaric foreign tribes that invaded the Empire from the North. Later this word in a distorted way was to meet in the literature of the Italian Renaissance.
As the title style for the first time the word “Gothic” was applied by the great painter Raphael, at the time of the report to the Pope on the construction of the Cathedral of St. Peter, and in that moment, he seems did not even know that she had decided on a new name for one of the greatest styles.
The main idea of this direction is to find answers to the questions – “why is there evil?”, “why is the world so cruel?”. It is believed that the Gothic style originated in Paris in 1136-1140.
In architecture the Gothic style manifested itself through the withdrawal from the dark bulky forms to more graceful and light, ascending up the designs in all their grandeur and monumentality. Continue reading
The term “Gothic” is more conventional than “Romanesque art”. It originated in Italy during the Renaissance, when we naively thought that the shape of Lancet arches of medieval architecture evolved from ancient forms of tents ready, supposedly just connecting the crown of trees growing nearby. In this term invested at the same time contempt for all the arts of the middle ages, for the Italians of the Renaissance that invaded the Roman Empire during the “great migration of peoples” the Goths, who founded on its ruins the Kingdom, was always the epitome of barbarism. Subsequently, when related to architecture of the middle ages has changed drastically, this term was retained to refer to late medieval art.
In most European countries the heyday of the Gothic back to XIII—XIV century. Typical for this time is the rapid growth and prosperity of cities. Creative activity now shifts from the monasteries into the hands of the secular masters, combining shop-floor organization.
Architecture . The architecture has developed a distinctive, extremely logical system designs and décor. This system has developed most fully revealed in the construction of large urban cathedrals in France, where he first formed the Gothic style, voshodjaschie to the first half of the XII century. These cathedrals were the pride of towns and, apart from their direct religious purposes, was often used in a secular view for public meetings of citizens. Continue reading