The great 20th century architect Le Corbusier believed that architecture is “the art of constructing”.
Many peoples and cultures contributed to the history of architecture. The pioneers were the Greeks, who created three orders, i.e. a special order in the arrangement of the parts of the building: strict — Doric, elegant, Ionian, lush Corinthian. The flowering of Greek architecture dates back to the 5th century, when Athens on the hill of the Acropolis were built by its famous temples.
The heirs of Greek culture the Romans first learned to build stone arches, simple vaults and domes for floors of buildings, began to be used for bonding stones lime mortar. It was a huge step forward in building technology. The most remarkable monuments of Roman architecture belong to the first centuries of our era. Special splendor distinguished buildings designed for entertainment: circuses, amphitheatres, baths. The largest Roman amphitheater, the Colosseum could accommodate 50 thousand spectators. Continue reading
Stonehenge — the most famous of the megaliths — for centuries stirred the imagination of people. But thousands more not less mysterious prehistoric stone “sphinxes”, is puzzling to the researchers, scattered around the world. Many of these mysterious structures and on the territory of Russia. Alexander Gay, a prominent Russian expert on Eneolithic and bronze age in South-Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, I am sure: there is not enough for one generation.
What are the megaliths and how they differ from each other?
Constructions from huge stones, slabs and blocks were erected by different peoples and in different epochs. The pyramids of Egypt or the temple in Belbek — also megaliths. Just call them so is not accepted. Megalithic research and in wide use called, usually stone monuments of prehistoric peoples who have not reached the level of barbarity or civilization.
In France, on the Atlantic coast — the whole field from thousands of these megaliths, built in parallel rows for miles. In addition, the megaliths are of different types: Nordic seids, the Nuraghe of Sardinia, the Atlantic corridor of the tomb of Europe, which is often now called in Breton Karami; menhirs — standing stones-stelae; stone circles — stone circles; dolmens — tombs with pillars or walls of verticalnaya, usually covered with a flat roof. Continue reading
Almost every one of us loves to dream, would like to look into the future. How might religious buildings if they were built today? For example, Notre Dame let’s consider what would have happened if the American, Japanese, Russian and, of course, French architects, if they built the temple today or in the near future.
But first, let’s priotkroem mystery built in the 13th century Cathedral. Notre-Dame de Paris was built during a different century architects and builders. The Cathedral is designed in the Gothic style, which was quite bold for its time, as the dominant style in architecture was of the Romanesque style. The Italian Bohemians who invented the word “Gothic” mockingly called them, architectural direction, incomprehensible and alien to them.
Though Gothic style and adopted some approaches of Romanesque architecture, but at the same time creatively re-interpreted them. The Gothic style succeeded the Romanesque rid of the inertia and heaviness of materials. Gothic cathedrals are two to three times higher than the Romanesque, they soar high. Notre Dame is a great confirmation of this. The Cathedral’s height of 70 meters, length – 130 meters, the Cathedral can last up to 9 thousand worshippers at a time. Surprisingly, the greatest work of iskusstvoznanie rather primitive construction methods and simple equipment. Continue reading